Reconsidering Nonlinearity and Asymmetry in Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty Models: An Empirical Study in Three Retail Service Settings

A.C.P. Streukens*, J.C. de Ruyter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The use of symmetric linear functional forms to describe the relationships among customer evaluative judgments is omnipresent in services research. However, according to several researchers, the use of symmetric linear functions to model the relationships among customer evaluative judgments leads to serious model misspecification. Although several asymmetric nonlinear functional forms have been proposed, only modest empirical evidence is available on the superiority of these more complex model specifications. Based on a formal empirical comparison in multiple service settings, we find that asymmetric nonlinear functions do not possess superior explanatory power compared to symmetric linear functional forms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-111
JournalMarketing Letters
Issue number2/3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004

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