Recommendations to standardize preanalytical confounding factors in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: an update

Marta del Campo*, Brit Mollenhauer, Antonio Bertolotto, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Harald Hampel, Anja Hviid Simonsen, Elisabeth Kapaki, Niels Kruse, Nathalie Le Bastard, Sylvain Lehmann, Jose Luis Molinuevo, Lucilla Parnetti, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Javier Saez-Valero, Esen Saka, Andrea Urbani, Eugeen Vanmechelen, Marcel M. Verbeek, Pieter Jelle Visser, Charlotte Teunissen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) is needed to slow down or halt the disease at the earliest stage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can be a good tool for early diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice is challenging due to the high variability found between centers in the concentrations of both AD CSF biomarkers (A beta 42, total tau and phosphorylated tau) and PD CSF biomarker (alpha-synuclein). Such a variability has been partially attributed to different preanalytical procedures between laboratories, thus highlighting the need to establish standardized operating procedures. Here, we merge two previous consensus guidelines for preanalytical confounding factors in order to achieve one exhaustive guideline updated with new evidence for A beta 42, total tau and phosphorylated tau, and a-synuclein. The proposed standardized operating procedures are applicable not only to novel CSF biomarkers in AD and PD, but also to biomarkers for other neurodegenerative disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-430
JournalBiomarkers in Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • biomarkers
  • CSF
  • early diagnosis
  • guidelines
  • Parkinson's disease
  • preanalytical factors
  • recommendations
  • standard operating procedures

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