Non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) kidneys may substantially expand the donor pool, but many transplant centers are reluctant to use these kidneys because of the relatively high incidence of primary nonfunction (PNF). In heart-beating donor kidneys, intravascular fluid depletion during transplant surgery is associated with delayed graft function (DGF). Therefore, we studied the effect of the recipients' hemodynamic status on the outcome of 177 NHBD kidney transplantations. Independent statistically significant predictors of PNF were average central venous pressure (CVP) below 6 cmH(2)O (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.1 (95% CI: 1.4-7.1), p=0.007), average systolic blood pressure below 110 mmHg (AOR 2.6 (95% CI: 1.1-5.9), p=0.03) and pre-operative diastolic blood pressure below 80 mmHg (AOR 2.4 (95% CI: 1.0-5.9), p=0.05). Donor characteristics were not independently associated with PNF (p>0.10). In a subgroup analysis of 56 paired kidneys, 29% of the recipients with the lower CVP of the pair experienced PNF compared with 11% of their counterparts with higher CVP (p=0.09). Our study indicates that recipient hemodynamics during transplant surgery are major predictors of PNF. Therefore, improving recipient hemodynamics by expansion of the intravascular volume is expected to enhance the results of NHBD kidney transplantations and may enlarge the donor pool by increasing the acceptance of NHBD kidneys.