Glomerular diseases with severe defects in glomerular permeability give rise to heavy proteinuria and can present as nephrotic syndrome. There are many different causes of the nephrotic syndrome and a renal biopsy is nearly always needed to elucidate the underlying disease. During the last decade, substantial advances have occurred in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in immune-mediated glomerular diseases. Here, we review the diagnostic and prognostic implications of recent progress on the understanding of membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, IgA nephropathy and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- IgA nephropathy
- membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
- membranous nephropathy
- minimal change disease
- nephrotic syndrome