Real-time fMRI neurofeedback: Progress and challenges

J. Sulzer*, S. Haller, F. Scharnowski, N. Weiskopf, N. Birbaumer, M. L. Blefari, A. B. Bruehl, L. G. Cohen, R. C. deCharms, R. Gassert, R. Goebel, U. Herwig, S. LaConte, D. Linden, A. Luft, E. Seifritz, R. Sitaram

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In February of 2012, the first international conference on real time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) neurofeedback was held at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), Switzerland. This review summarizes progress in the field, introduces current debates, elucidates open questions, and offers viewpoints derived from the conference. The review offers perspectives on study design, scientific and clinical applications, rtfMRI learning mechanisms and future outlook.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)386-399
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2013


  • Real-time fMRI
  • Neurofeedback
  • Operant conditioning
  • Brain-computer interface


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