Randomized Trial of Platelet-Transfusion Thresholds in Neonates

Anna Curley*, Simon J. Stanworth, Karen Willoughby, Susanna F. Fustolo-Gunnink, Vidheya Venkatesh, Cara Hudson, Alison Deary, Renate Hodge, Valerie Hopkins, Beatriz Lopez Santamaria, Ana Mora, Charlotte Llewelyn, Angela D'Amore, Rizwan Khan, Wes Onland, Enrico Lopriore, Karin Fijnvandraat, Helen New, Paul Clarke, Timothy WattsPlaNeT2 MATISSE Collaborators, Mark van der Hoeven

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

145 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Platelet transfusions are commonly used to prevent bleeding in preterm infants with thrombocytopenia. Data are lacking to provide guidance regarding thresholds for prophylactic platelet transfusions in preterm neonates with severe thrombocytopenia.

METHODS

In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation in whom severe thrombocytopenia developed to receive a platelet transfusion at platelet-count thresholds of 50,000 per cubic millimeter (high-threshold group) or 25,000 per cubic millimeter (low-threshold group). Bleeding was documented prospectively with the use of a validated bleeding-assessment tool. The primary outcome was death or new major bleeding within 28 days after randomization.

RESULTS

A total of 660 infants (median birth weight, 740 g; and median gestational age, 26.6 weeks) underwent randomization. In the high-threshold group, 90% of the infants (296 of 328 infants) received at least one platelet transfusion, as compared with 53% (177 of 331 infants) in the low-threshold group. A new major bleeding episode or death occurred in 26% of the infants (85 of 324) in the high-threshold group and in 19% (61 of 329) in the low-threshold group (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.32; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to rates of serious adverse events (25% in the highthreshold group and 22% in the low-threshold group; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.67).

CONCLUSIONS

Among preterm infants with severe thrombocytopenia, those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a significantly higher rate of death or major bleeding within 28 days after randomization than those who received platelet transfusions at a plateletcount threshold of 25,000 per cubic millimeter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)242-251
Number of pages10
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume380
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • UNITED-STATES
  • HEMORRHAGE
  • THROMBOCYTOPENIA
  • BIRTH

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