Palovarotene is an oral gamma-selective retinoid agonist. In animal emphysema models, palovarotene reduced inflammation, promoted structural repair and functional improvement.
REPAIR (Retinoid treatment of Emphysema in Patients on the alpha(1)-antitrypsin International Registry), was an investigator-initiated, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study to assess the safety and efficacy of 5 mg.day(-1) palovarotene given for 1 year to 262 patients with severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency and emphysema confirmed by computed tomography. Change in volume-adjusted 15th percentile point lung density from baseline in 1 year was the primary endpoint; functional end-points were also regularly assessed.
We randomly assigned 133 and 129 patients to placebo or palovarotene, respectively. Both groups were well matched for all baseline characteristics, including respiratory medications. 88% and 85% of patients completed 1 year of treatment with placebo and palovarotene, respectively. Palovarotene was generally well tolerated. In the study completers population, the placebo-corrected difference of lung density was -0.45 HU at week 28 (p=0.64) and -0.25 HU at week 52 (p=0.94). A nonsignificant treatment difference in most functional parameters of the lung in favour of the drug was observed over time suggesting potential pharmacological effects of palovarotene.
Palovarotene 5 mg.day(-1) over 1 yr failed to show a significant benefit on lung density in moderate-to-severe emphysema secondary to severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency.
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment
- clinical trials
- COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY DENSITOMETRY
- OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE
- AUGMENTATION THERAPY
- CT DENSITOMETRY