Radiation Exposure of Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography Compared With Full-Field Digital Mammography

Cecile R. L. P. N. Jeukens, Ulrich C. Lalji, Eduard Meijer, Betina Bakija, Robin Theunissen, Joachim E. Wildberger, Marc B. I. Lobbes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) shows promising initial results but comes at the cost of increased dose as compared with full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We aimed to quantitatively assess the dose increase of CESM in comparison with FFDM. Materials and Methods: Radiation exposure-related data (such as kilovoltage, compressed breast thickness, glandularity, entrance skin air kerma (ESAK), and average glandular dose (AGD) were retrieved for 47 CESM and 715 FFDM patients. All examinations were performed on 1 mammography unit. Radiation dose values reported by the unit were validated by phantom measurements. Descriptive statistics of the patient data were generated using a statistical software package. Results: Dose values reported by the mammography unit were in good qualitative agreement with those of phantom measurements. Mean ESAK was 10.5 mGy for a CESM exposure and 7.46 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Mean AGD for a CESM exposure was 2.80 mGy and 1.55 mGy for an FFDM exposure. Conclusions: Compared with our institutional FFDM, the AGD of a single CESM exposure is increased by 1.25 mGy (+81%), whereas ESAK is increased by 3.07 mGy (+41%). Dose values of both techniques meet the recommendations for maximum dose in mammography.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-665
JournalInvestigative Radiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • breast cancer
  • mammography
  • CESM
  • CEDM
  • radiation dose

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