Quantification of Death Risk in Relation to Sex, Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients: Let's Take Stock and See Where We Are

A.I. Moula, L.R. Micali, F. Matteucci, F. Luca, C.M. Rao, O. Parise, G. Parise, M.M. Gulizia, S. Gelsomino*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

11 Citations (Web of Science)


Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) might be more susceptible to infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and have higher mortality rates. Nevertheless, the risk of mortality has not been previously quantified. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the risk of mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. A meta-analysis was conducted analyzing the impact of (1) sex, (2) age, (3) CVD with coronary artery disease (CAD), (4) CAD alone, (5) CVD without CAD, (6) hypertension, (7) cerebrovascular diseases, and (8) diabetes on mortality. Relative risk was assessed for dichotomous variables, mean difference for continuous variables. Twenty-six studies were included, encompassing 8497 patients. Males had 16% higher risk of mortality than females (p < 0.05) and elderly patients had higher chance of dying than younger patients (p < 0.0001). Patients with overall CVD have a 1.96-fold higher mortality risk (p < 0.0001). CAD increases risk of mortality by 1.90-fold (p < 0.05). CVD-CAD were found to increase risk up to 2.03-fold (p < 0.05). Hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes increase the risk of death up to 1.73-fold, 1.76-fold and 1.59-fold, respectively (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.05, respectively). Sex, age, presence of CAD and/or other types of CVD, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus increase mortality in patients with COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2685
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • covid-19
  • diabetes mellitus
  • hypertension
  • mortality
  • sars-cov-2

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