Quality indicators to assess quality of pain clinic care from the perspective of patients with chronic pain: development, usability, comprehensibility, and psychometric quality of the QiPPP questionnaire

Nelleke de Meij*, Albere Koke, Ilona Thomassen, Jan-Willem Kallewaard, Maarten van Kleef, Trudy van der Weijden

*Corresponding author for this work

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To address the lack of appropriate patient-defined quality indicators (QIs) for assessment of pain clinic care in the Netherlands, we developed the "Quality Indicators Pain Patients' Perspective" (QiPPP) questionnaire. Quality indicators are widely used to measure the quality of the structure, process, and outcome of health care. The Pain Patient United Consortium, together with the University Pain Centre of Maastricht, developed QIs for assessment of care. The aim of this study was to develop QIs from the perspective of patients with chronic pain for assessment of the care provided by a pain clinic, and to validate them on usability, comprehensibility, and psychometric quality in daily pain practice. Quality as defined by patients with chronic pain (in survey and focus groups) was prioritized by consensus and transformed into QI. A first set was tested and fine-tuned, resulting in the QiPPP questionnaire. Five participating pain clinics distributed 200 questionnaires among consecutive patients with chronic pain under treatment. To examine the dimensionality of the QIs, patient responses were analyzed on the basis of reporting frequencies and findings of principal component analysis. For construct validation, the influence of patient characteristics was observed in 3 components. A total of 547 (54.7%) populated QiPPP questionnaires (response rate, 58.9%) were analyzed. The mean score for patient comprehensibility was 8.6 +/- 1.4. The final QiPPP questionnaire included 21 QIs (18 process; 3 outcome) distributed over 7 domains. The QiPPP questionnaire was of sufficient psychometric quality and found to be useful and understandable by patients with chronic pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2593-2605
Number of pages13
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • QI
  • Quality assessment
  • Pain clinic care
  • Pain patients' perspective

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