Psychosocial determinants of cigarette smoking among university students in Jordan

M. Farajat*, C. Hoving, H. De Vries

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of cigarette use and water pipe smoking in Jordanian university students and to analyze differences in determinants between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 400 students (18-24 years, 51% males). Smokers were compared with non-smokers on several smoking-related determinants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, chi(2) test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates of cigarette use and water pipe smoking were 25.9% and 23.3%, respectively. Cigarette smokers differed significantly from non-smokers on almost all of the assessed determinants. The I-Change model explained 85% of the total variance of cigarette-smoking behavior. Cigarette smoking was determined by being male and older, having more depressive symptoms, having less Muslim identity, being more emancipated, perceiving more pros of smoking, having more modeling from peers and having lower self-efficacy. The popularity of cigarette use and water pipe smoking among Jordanian students necessitates health promotion interventions that motivate students not to engage in smoking behaviors by clearly outlining the outcomes of smoking and the healthier alternatives, how to cope with social influences and difficult situations in order to increase self-efficacy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-161
JournalJournal of developmental origins of health and disease
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011


  • determinants
  • health promotion
  • Jordan
  • smoking behavior

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