Many HIV-positive South African women continue to have unprotected sex. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess correlates of condom use consistency among Xhosa-speaking HIV-positive women in South Africa. One hundred and twenty women were recruited from five primary care clinics and completed a questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated that assertive negotiation and self efficacy for condom use were proximal correlates of condom use consistency. Mediation analyses showed that self-efficacy for assertive negotiation is a distal correlate of condom use consistency.We propose a framework of correlates of condom use consistency to inform future intervention development.