Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale in Dutch cancer patients

Anna P. B. M. Braeken*, Gertrudis I. J. M. Kempen, Maggie Watson, Ruud M. A. Houben, Francis C. J. M. van Gils, Lilian Lechner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

13 Citations (Web of Science)


Objectives: The measurement of adjustment to cancer is relevant for research purposes and daily practice. In this study, the psychometric properties of the original five subscales and the two recently proposed summary scales of the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale were examined in Dutch cancer patients. Methods: Data from 289 cancer patients were assessed with the Dutch version of the MAC scale and the Hospital and Anxiety Depression scale (HADS); 259 patients completed the MAC scale for a second time. Results: In total, 85.5% of the participants completed the full MAC scale. The internal consistency of the five subscales and the summary scales were mostly similar to the original versions. The test-retest reliability of the Fighting Spirit, Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Summary Positive Adjustment and Summary Negative Adjustment subscales were moderate and the test retest reliability of the Fatalism and Avoidance subscales were low. Correlations between the original and the two summary scales of the MAC scale and the depression and anxiety subscales of the HADS indicated good convergent validity. The structure of the five original subscales as well as the structure of the two proposed summary scales was adequate as shown by construct validity using confirmatory factor analyses. Conclusion: The Dutch version of the MAC scale is a feasible questionnaire and appeared to have comparable psychometric properties as demonstrated by studies in the UK. The psychometric properties of the summary scales and Fighting Spirit and Helplessness/Hopelessness subscales seem to be acceptable. This supports the cross-national usefulness of the MAC scale.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)742-749
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • cancer
  • adjustment to cancer
  • MAC
  • oncology
  • psychological response
  • psychometric properties

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