COPD is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation due to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities. Furthermore, COPD is often characterized by extrapulmonary manifestations and comorbidities worsening COPD progression and quality of life. A neglected comorbidity in COPD management is mental health impairment defined by anxiety, depression and cognitive problems. This paper summarizes the evidence for impaired mental health in COPD and focuses on current pharmacological intervention strategies. In addition, possible mechanisms in impaired mental health in COPD are discussed with a central role for inflammation.
Many comorbidities are associated with multi-organ-associated systemic inflammation in COPD. Considering the accumulative evidence for a major role of systemic inflammation in the development of neurological disorders, it can be hypothesized that COPD-associated systemic inflammation also affects the function of the brain and is an interesting therapeutic target for nutra- and pharmaceuticals.
- Cognitive impairment
- Systemic inflammation
- Pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions
- OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE
- NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR
- MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
- WHITE-MATTER LESIONS
- VITAMIN-D DEFICIENCY
- MULTI-NUTRIENT DIET
- OXIDATIVE STRESS
- MOUSE MODEL