Pseudo links and singular links in the Solid Torus

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Abstract

In this paper we introduce and study the theories of pseudo links and singular links in the Solid Torus, ST. Pseudo links are links with some missing crossing information that naturally generalize the notion of knot diagrams, and that have potential use in molecular biology, while singular links are links that contain a finite number of self-intersections. We consider pseudo links and singular links in ST and we set up the appropriate topological theory in order to construct invariants for these types of links in ST. In particular, we formulate and prove the analogue of the Alexander theorem for pseudo links and for singular links in ST. We then introduce the mixed pseudo braid monoid and the mixed singular braid monoid, with the use of which, we formulate and prove the analogue of the Markov theorem for pseudo links and for singular links in ST. \smallbreak Moreover, we introduce the pseudo Hecke algebra of type A, PHn, the cyclotomic and generalized pseudo Hecke algebras of type B, PH1,n, and discuss how the pseudo braid monoid (cor. the mixed pseudo braid monoid) can be represented by PHn (cor. by PH1,n). This is the first step toward the construction of HOMFLYPT-type invariants for pseudo links in S3 and in ST. We also introduce the cyclotomic and generalized singular Hecke algebras of type B, SH1,n, and we present two sets that we conjecture that they form linear bases for SH1,n. Finally, we generalize the bracket polynomial for pseudo links in ST.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherCornell University - arXiv
Number of pages20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

SeriesarXiv.org
Number2101.03538
ISSN2331-8422

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