Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia; however, mechanisms and biomarkers remain unclear. Here, we examined hippocampal CA4 and dentate gyrus subfields, which are less studied in the context of AD pathology, in post-mortem AD and control tissue to identify possible biomarkers. We performed mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis combined with label-free quantification for identification of differentially expressed proteins. We identified 4,328 proteins, of which 113 showed more than 2-fold higher or lower expression in AD hippocampi than in control tissues. Five proteins were identified as putative AD biomarkers (MDH2, PCLO, TRRAP, YWHAZ, and MUC19 isoform 5) and were cross-validated by immunoblotting, selected reaction monitoring, and MALDI imaging. We also used a bioinformatics approach to examine upstream signalling interactions of the 113 regulated proteins. Five upstream signalling (IGF1, BDNF, ZAP70, MYC, and cyclosporin A) factors showed novel interactions in AD hippocampi. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel platform that may provide new strategies for the early detection of AD and thus its diagnosis.