Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Is Associated with Improved Oncological Outcome in Men Treated with Salvage Radiation Therapy for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer

Dennie Meijer*, Wietse S C Eppinga, Roos M Mohede, Ben G L Vanneste, Philip Meijnen, Otto W M Meijer, Laurien A Daniels, Roderick C N van den Bergh, Anne P Lont, Rosemarijn H Ettema, Frederik H K Oudshoorn, Pim J van Leeuwen, Henk G van der Poel, Maarten L Donswijk, Daniela E Oprea-Lager, Eva E Schaake, André N Vis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Web of Science)


BACKGROUND: Radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has shown superior diagnostic accuracy to conventional imaging for the detection of prostate cancer deposits . Consequently, clinical management changes have been reported in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of disease after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). We hypothesized that, due to the exclusion of patients with metastatic disease on PSMA-PET/CT, those who underwent local salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after restaging PSMA-PET/CT for BCR may have better oncological outcomes than patients who underwent "blind" SRT.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the oncological outcome of a patient cohort that underwent PSMA-PET imaging prior to SRT with that of a patient cohort that did not have PSMA-PET imaging before SRT.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 610 patients who underwent SRT, of whom 298 underwent PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT and 312 did not. No additional hormonal therapy was prescribed.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: To compare both cohorts, case-control matching was performed, using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value at the initiation of SRT, pathological grade group, pathological T stage, surgical margin status, and biochemical persistence after RARP as matching variables. The outcome variable was biochemical progression at 1 yr after SRT, defined as either a rise of PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml above the nadir after SRT or the start of additional treatment.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: After case-control matching, 216 patients were matched in both cohorts (108 patients per cohort). In the patient cohort without PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT, of 108 patients, 23 (21%) had biochemical progression of disease at 1 yr after SRT, compared with nine (8%) who underwent restaging PSMA-PET/CT prior to SRT (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS: PSMA-PET/CT is found to be associated with an improved oncological outcome in patients who undergo SRT for BCR after RARP.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Performing prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence of disease after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, before initiating salvage radiation therapy, resulted in improved short-term oncological outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-152
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Urology Oncology
Issue number2
Early online date22 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Cite this