Promoter Methylation of CDO1 Identifies Clear-Cell Renal Cell Cancer Patients with Poor Survival Outcome
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Academic › peer-review
Purpose: In this era of molecular diagnostics, prediction of clear-cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) survival requires optimization, as current prognostic markers fail to determine individual patient outcome. Epigenetic events are promising molecular markers. Promoter CpG island methylation of cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1), which was identified as prognostic marker for breast cancer, is studied as a potential marker for ccRCC survival. Experimental Design: We collected primary tissues of 365 ccRCC cases identified within the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). In this population-based series, CDO1 promoter methylation was observed in 124 of 324 (38.3%) patients with successful methylation-specific PCR analysis. Kaplan-Meier curves and Wilcoxon tests were used to evaluate 10-year ccRCC-specific survival. Cox regression analysis was used to obtain crude and multivariate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The relative prognostic value of multivariate models with and without CDO1 promoter methylation was compared using likelihood-ratio tests. Results: Patients with CDO1 promoter methylation have a significantly poorer survival than those without (Wilcoxon P = 0.006). Differences in survival were independent of other prognostic factors, including age and sex (HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.12-2.45) and TNM stage, tumor size, and Fuhrman grade (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.25-2.85). Multivariate models performed better with than without CDO1 promoter methylation status (likelihood-ratio P = 0.003). Survival curves were validated in an independent series of 280 ccRCC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA; Wilcoxon P <0.001). Conclusions: CDO1 promoter methylation may not substitute common prognostic makers to predict ccRCC survival, but offers additional, relevant prognostic information, indicating that it might be a novel molecular marker to determine ccRCC prognosis.