Progression to dementia in memory clinic patients without dementia A latent profile analysis

Sebastian Kohler*, Renske Hamel, Nicole Sistermans, Ted Koene, Yolande A L Pijnenburg, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Pieter-Jelle Visser, Pauline Aalten, Frans R. J. Verhey, Inez Ramakers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective: To identify the existence of discrete cognitive subtypes among memory clinic patients without dementia and test their prognostic values. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study of 635 patients without dementia visiting the Alzheimer centers in Maastricht or Amsterdam, latent profile analysis identified cognitive subtypes based on immediate and delayed memory recall, delayed recognition, information-processing speed, attention, verbal fluency, and executive functions. Time to dementia was tested in weighted Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for confounders. Results: Five latent classes represented participants with high-normal cognition (15%), low-normal cognition (37%), primary memory impairment in recall (MI) (36%), memory impairment in recall and recognition (MI+) (5%), and primary nonmemory impairment (NMI) (6%). Compared with low-normal cognition, participants with NMI had the highest risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.46-10.18) followed by MI (HR = 3.05, 95% CI = 2.09-4.46) and MI+ (HR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.72-6.17), while participants with high-normal cognition had the lowest risk (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.07-0.80). Subtypes further showed differential relationships with dementia types, with MI and MI+ most often converting to Alzheimer-type dementia and NMI to other forms of dementia. Conclusions: Cognitive subtypes can be empirically identified in otherwise heterogeneous samples of memory clinic patients and largely confirm current strategies to distinguish between amnestic and nonamnestic impairment. Studying more homogeneous cognitive subtypes may improve understanding of disease mechanisms and outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1342-1349
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 8 Oct 2013


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