Program for Laparoscopic Urologic Skills: A Newly Developed and Validated Educational Program

Irene M. Tjiam*, Marjolein C. Persoon, Ad J. M. Hendrikx, Arno M. M. Muijtjens, J. Alfred Witjes, Albert J. J. A. Scherpbier

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a program for laparoscopic urologic skills (PLUS) to determine the face, content, and construct validation to achieve uniformity and standardization in training residents in urology. METHODS The PLUS consists of 5 basic laparoscopic tasks. Three tasks were abstracted from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery program, and 2 additional tasks were developed under continuous evaluation by expert urologists. Fifty participants were recruited from different hospitals and performed the final PLUS training. They all completed a questionnaire after performance. Three outcome parameters were measured: performance quality, time, and dropped objects. The relationship between laparoscopic experience and the outcome parameters was investigated. RESULTS Of the 50 participants, 13 were students, 20 were residents, and 17 were urologists. Double-log linear regression analysis for all 5 tasks showed a significant effect (effect size range 0.53-0.82; P <.0005) for laparoscopic experience on performance time. Substantial correlations were found between experience and quality ratings (log-linear regression effect size 0.37; P = .012) and the number of dropped objects (Spearman correlation effect size 0.49; P <.01). The usefulness of the PLUS model as a training tool for basic laparoscopic skills was rated 4.55 on a scale from 1 (not useful) to 5 (useful) (standard deviation 0.58; range 3-5). CONCLUSION The results of the present study indicated the face, content, and construct validity for the PLUS. The training is considered appropriate for use as a primary training tool for an entry test or as part of a step-wise training program in which basic and procedural laparoscopic skills are integrated. UROLOGY 79: 815-820, 2012.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)815-820
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


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