Prognostic Relevance of Gene-Environment Interactions in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Applying the MOGE(S) Classification

M.R. Hazebroek*, S. Moors, R. Dennert, A. van den Wijngaard, I. Krapels, M. Hoos, J. Verdonschot, J.J. Merken, B. de Vries, P.F. Wolffs, H.J.G.M. Crijns, H.P. Brunner-La Rocca, S. Heymans

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND The multifactorial pathogenesis leading to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) makes stratification difficult. The recent MOGE(S) (morphofunctional, organ involvement, genetic or familial, etiology, stage) classification addresses this issue.

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability and prognostic relevance of the MOGE(S) classification in patients with DCM.

METHODS This study used patients from the Maastricht Cardiomyopathy Registry in the Netherlands and excluded patients with ischemic, valvular, hypertensive, and congenital heart disease. All other patients underwent a complete diagnostic work-up, including genetic evaluation and endomyocardial biopsy.

RESULTS A total of 213 consecutive patients with DCM were included: organ involvement was demonstrated in 35 (16%) and genetic or familial DCM in 70 (33%) patients, including 16 (8%) patients with a pathogenic mutation. At least 1 cause was found in 155 (73%) patients, of whom 48 (23%) had more than 1 possible cause. Left ventricular reverse remodeling was more common in patients with nongenetic or nonfamilial DCM than in patients with genetic or familial DCM (40% vs. 25%; p = 0.04). After a median follow-up of 47 months, organ involvement and higher New York Heart Association functional class were associated with adverse outcome (p <0.001 and p - 0.02, respectively). Genetic or familial DCM per se was of no prognostic significance, but when it was accompanied by additional etiologic-environmental factors such as significant viral load, immune-mediated factors, rhythm disturbances, or toxic triggers, a worse outcome was revealed (p = 0.03). A higher presence of MOGE(S) attributes (>= 2 vs.

CONCLUSIONS The MOGE(S) classification in DCM is applicable, and each attribute or the gene-environment interaction is associated with outcome. Importantly, the presence of multiple attributes was a strong predictor of adverse outcome. Finally, adaptation of the MOGE(S) involving multiple possible etiologies is recommended. (C) 2015 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1313-1323
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 22 Sep 2015


  • autoimmune
  • etiology
  • toxic
  • virus

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