Prognostic Impact of KRAS G12C Mutation in Patients With NSCLC: Results From the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Project

Stephen P. Finn*, Alfredo Addeo, Urania Dafni, Erik Thunnissen, Lukas Bubendorf, Line Bille Madsen, Wojciech Biernat, Eric Verbeken, Javier Hernandez-Losa, Antonio Marchetti, Richard Cheney, Arne Warth, Ernst-Jan M. Speel, Anne Marie Quinn, Kim Monkhorst, Eloisa Jantus-Lewintre, Verena Tischler, Nesa Marti, Georgia Dimopoulou, Miguel A. Molina-VilaRoswitha Kammler, Keith M. Kerr, Solange Peters, Rolf A. Stahel, European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape Investigators

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction: KRAS mutations, the most frequent gain-of function alterations in NSCLC, are currently emerging as potential predictive therapeutic targets. The role of KRASG12C (Kr_G12C) is of special interest after the recent discovery and preclinical analyses of two different Kr_G12C covalent inhibitors (AMG-510, MRTX849).

Methods: KRAS mutations were evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections by a microfluidic-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction platform as a component of the previously published European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape 003 Multiplex Mutation study, of clinically annotated, resected, stage I to III NSCLC. In this study, -Kr_G12C mutation prevalence and its association with clinicopathologic characteristics, molecular profiles, and postoperative patient outcome (overall survival, relapse-free survival, time-to-relapse) were explored.

Results: KRAS gene was tested in 2055 Lungscape cases (adenocarcinomas: 1014 [49%]) with I or II or III stage respective distribution of 53% or 24% or 22% and median follow-up of 57 months. KRAS mutation prevalence in the adenocarcinoma cohort was 38.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 35.0% to 41.0%), with Kr_G12C mutation representing 17.0% (95% CI: 14.7% to 19.4%). In the "histologicsubtype" cohort, Kr_G12C prevalence was 10.5% (95% CI: 9.2% to 11.9%). When adjusting for clinicopathologic characteristics, a significant negative prognostic effect of Kr_G12C presence versus other KRAS mutations or nonexistence of KRAS mutation was identified in the adenocarcinoma cohort alone and in the "histologic-subtype" cohort. For overall survival in adenocarcinomas, hazard ratio (HR)(G12C versus other KRAS) is equal to 1.39 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.89, p = 0.031) and HRG12C versus no KRAS is equal to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.69, p = 0.028) (both also significant in the "histologic-subtype" cohort). For time-to-relapse, HRG12C versus other KRAS is equal to 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03 to 1.92, p = 0.030). In addition, among all patients, for relapse-free survival, HRG12C versus no KRAS is equal to 1.27 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.54, p = 0.017).

Conclusions: In this large, clinically annotated stage I to III NSCLC cohort, the specific Kr_G12C mutation is significantly associated with poorer prognosis (adjusting for clinicopathologic characteristics) among adenocarcinomas and in unselected NSCLCs. (C) 2021 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)990-1002
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Thoracic Oncology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • KRAS
  • Kr_G12C
  • Multiplex PCR platform


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