Principles of a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

N. Weiskopf*, K. Mathiak, S.W. Bock, F. Scharnowski, R. Veit, W. Grodd, R. Goebel, N. Birbaumer

*Corresponding author for this work

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A brain-computer interface (BCI) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) records noninvasively activity of the entire brain with a high spatial resolution. We present a fMRI-based BCI which performs data processing and feedback of the hemodynamic brain activity within 1.3 s. Using this technique, differential feedback and self-regulation is feasible as exemplified by the supplementary motor area (SMA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA). Technical and experimental aspects are discussed with respect to neurofeedback. The methodology now allows for studying behavioral effects and strategies of local self-regulation in healthy and diseased subjects.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-970
JournalIeee Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004

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