Prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes: a summary guidance for daily practice 2015, based on the IWGDF guidance documents

N.C. Schaper, J.J. van Netten*, J. Apelqvist, B.A. Lipsky, K. Bakker, The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this Summary Guidance for Daily Practice', we describe the basic principles of prevention and management of foot problems in persons with diabetes. This summary is based on the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) Guidance 2015. There are five key elements that underpin prevention of foot problems: (1) identification of the at-risk foot; (2) regular inspection and examination of the at-risk foot; (3) education of patient, family and healthcare providers; (4) routine wearing of appropriate footwear; and (5) treatment of pre-ulcerative signs. Healthcare providers should follow a standardized and consistent strategy for evaluating a foot wound, as this will guide further evaluation and therapy. The following items must be addressed: type, cause, site and depth, and signs of infection. There are seven key elements that underpin ulcer treatment: (1) relief of pressure and protection of the ulcer; (2) restoration of skin perfusion; (3) treatment of infection; (4) metabolic control and treatment of co-morbidity; (5) local wound care; (6) education for patient and relatives; and (7) prevention of recurrence. Finally, successful efforts to prevent and manage foot problems in diabetes depend upon a well-organized team, using a holistic approach in which the ulcer is seen as a sign of multi-organ disease, and integrating the various disciplines involved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-15
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes-metabolism Research and Reviews
Issue numbersuppl. 1
Early online date3 Sept 2015
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016


  • diabetic foot
  • foot ulcer
  • guidelines
  • guidance
  • daily practice
  • implementation

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