BACKGROUND: We investigated prevalence and predictive factors for ESBL-E carriage in a population of mostly travellers prior to their travel (n = 2216). In addition, we examined ESBL genotype before travel and compared these to returning travellers.
METHOD: A questionnaire and faecal sample were collected before travel, and a second faecal sample was collected immediately after travel. Faecal samples were analysed for ESBL-E, with genotypic characterization by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors for ESBL-E carriage prior to travel were identified by logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Before travel, 136 participants (6.1%) were colonized with ESBL-E. Antibiotic use in the past three months (ORadjusted 2.57; 95% CI 1.59-4.16) and travel outside of Europe in the past year (1.92, 1.28-2.87) were risk factors for ESBL-E colonisation prior to travel. Travel outside of Europe carried the largest attributable risk (39.8%). Prior to travel 31.3% (40/128) of participants carried blaCTX-M 15 and 21.9% (28/128) blaCTX-M 14/18. In returning travellers 633 acquired ESBL-E of who 53.4% (338/633) acquired blaCTX-M 15 and 17.7% (112/633) blaCTX-M 14/18.
CONCLUSION: In our population of Dutch travellers we found a pre-travel ESBL-E prevalence of 6.1%. Prior to travel, previous antibiotic use and travel outside of Europe were the strongest independent predictors for ESBL-E carriage, with travel outside of Europe carrying the largest attributable risk. Our molecular results suggest ESBL genes found in our study population prior to travel were in large part travel related.
- LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERIACEAE
- FECAL CARRIAGE