Prevalence and determinants of anaemia in women of reproductive age in Sudan: analysis of a cross-sectional household survey

Khalid Abdelmutalab Elmardi*, Ishag Adam, Elfatih Mohammed Malik, Tarig Abdalla Abdelrahim, Mousab Siddig Elhag, Abdalla Ahmed Ibrahim, Mariam Adam Babiker, Asma Hashim Elhassan, Hmooda Toto Kafy, Azza Tageldin Elshafie, Lubna Mohammed Nawai, Mujahid Sheikhedin Abdin, Stef Kremers

*Corresponding author for this work

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BackgroundAnaemia is a global health problem and women in reproductive age (WRA) are amongst the most affected population. Its consequences include low birth weight and maternal mortality. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anaemia and to identify its determinants in Sudanese women in reproductive age.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sudan in 2016. A multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design was executed with consideration of rural population, urban population, and internally displaced persons/refugees camps residents. All women in reproductive age (15-49years), classified by pregnancy status, in the targeted households were surveyed and personal characteristic data were collected. Their haemoglobin level and malaria infection (using rapid diagnostic test, RDT) were assessed. The World Health Organization (WHO) haemoglobin level cut-off for defining anaemia and severe anaemia in pregnant and non-pregnant women was used. Logistic regression analyses were performed.ResultsA total of 4271 women (WRA) of which 421 (9.9%) pregnant women (PW) were included in the study. The overall anaemia prevalence in WRA was 35.6%. It was 36.0 and 35.5% in PW and non-pregnant women (NPW), respectively. The average haemoglobin level was found to be 113.9g/L (SD 16.3) and 123.2g/L (SD 15.7) for PW and NPW respectively. Severe anaemia prevalence was 1.2% in each group. In the logistic regression model, anaemia was associated with malaria infection in PW (aOR 4.100, 95%CI 1.523-11.039, p=0.003), NPW (aOR 2.776, 95%CI 1.889-4.080, p

Original languageEnglish
Article number1125
Number of pages12
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jul 2020


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anemia/epidemiology
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Family Characteristics
  • Female
  • Hemoglobins/analysis
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Malaria/epidemiology
  • Poverty/statistics & numerical data
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Refugees/statistics & numerical data
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population/statistics & numerical data
  • Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data
  • Sudan/epidemiology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
  • Women's Health/statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult

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