Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of commensal Streptococcus pneumoniae in nine European countries

Rachid Y. Yahiaoui*, Casper D. J. den Heijer, Evelien M. E. van Bijnen, W. John Paget, Mike Pringle, Herman Goossens, Catharina Bruggeman, Francois G. Schellevis, Ellen E. Stobberingh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The human microbiota represents an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Moreover, the majority of antibiotics are prescribed in primary care. For this reason, we assessed the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of nasal carriage strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most prevalent bacterial causative agent of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, in outpatients in nine European countries. Nasal swabs were collected between October 2010 and May 2011, from 32,770 patients, recruited by general practices in nine European countries. Overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasal carriage in the nine countries was 2.9%. The carriage was higher in men (3.7%) than in women (2.7%). Children (4-9 years) had a higher carriage prevalence (27.2%) compared with those older than 10 years (1.9%). The highest resistance observed was to cefaclor. The highest prevalence of multidrug resistance was found in Spain and the lowest prevalence was observed in Sweden.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)737-744
Number of pages8
JournalFuture Microbiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • antibiotic resistance
  • nasal swab
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

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