Presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in a high-protein diet affect appetite suppression but not energy expenditure in normal-weight human subjects fed in energy balance.

M.A. Veldhorst, K.R. Westerterp, A.H. van Vught, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga

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Abstract

Two types of relatively high-protein diets, with a normal or low proportion of carbohydrates, have been shown effective for weight loss. The objective was to assess the significance of the presence or absence of carbohydrates and the proportion of fat in high-protein diets for affecting appetite suppression, energy expenditure, and fat oxidation in normal-weight subjects in energy balance. Subjects (aged 23 (sd 3) years and BMI 22.0 (sd 1.9) kg/m2) were stratified in two groups. Each was offered two diets in a randomised cross-over design: group 1 (n 22) - normal protein (NP; 10, 60 and 30 % energy (En%) from protein, carbohydrate and fat), high protein (HP; 30, 40 and 30 En%); group 2 (n 23) - normal protein (NP-g; 10, 60 and 30 En%), high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP-0C; 30, 0 and 70 En%) for 2 d; NP-g and HP-0C were preceded by glycogen-lowering exercise (day 1). Appetite was measured throughout day 2 using visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient; RQ) were measured in a respiration chamber (08.00 hours on day 2 until 07.30 hours on day 3). Fasting plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration was measured (day 3). NP-g and NP did not differ in hunger, EE, RQ and BHB. HP-0C and HP v. NP-g and NP, respectively, were lower in hunger (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) and RQ (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) and higher in EE (P < 0.05; P = 0.07) and BHB (P < 0.05; P < 0.001). Hunger and RQ were lower with HP-0C than HP (693 (sd 208) v. 905 (sd 209) mm VAS x 24 h, P < 0.01; 0.76 (sd 0.01) v. 0.81 (sd 0.02), P < 0.01); BHB was higher (1349 (sd 653) v. 332 (sd 102) mumol/l; P < 0.001). DeltaHunger, DeltaRQ, and DeltaBHB were larger between HP-0C-NP-g than between HP-NP ( - 346 (sd 84) v. - 107 (sd 52) mm VAS x 24 h, P < 0.01; - 0.09 (sd 0.00) v. - 0.05 (sd 0.00), P < 0.001; 1115 (sd 627) v. 104 (sd 42) mumol/l, P < 0.001). In conclusion, appetite suppression and fat oxidation were higher on a high-protein diet without than with carbohydrates exchanged for fat. Energy expenditure was not affected by the carbohydrate content of a high-protein diet.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1395-1405
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume104
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010

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