Preoperative planning with three-dimensional reconstruction of patient's anatomy, rapid prototyping and simulation for endoscopic mitral valve repair

Peyman Sardari Nia*, Samuel Heuts, Jean Daemen, Peter Luyten, Jindrich Vainer, Jan Hoorntje, Emile Cheriex, Jos Maessen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVES: Mitral valve repair performed by an experienced surgeon is superior to mitral valve replacement for degenerative mitral valve disease; however, many surgeons are still deterred from adapting this procedure because of a steep learning curve. Simulation-based training and planning could improve the surgical performance and reduce the learning curve. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific simulation for mitral valve repair and provide a proof of concept of personalized medicine in a patient prospectively planned for mitral valve surgery.

METHODS: A 65-year old male with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation was referred to our mitral valve heart team. On the basis of three-dimensional (3D) transoesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography, 3D reconstructions of the patient's anatomy were constructed. By navigating through these reconstructions, the repair options and surgical access were chosen (minimally invasive repair). Using rapid prototyping and negative mould fabrication, we developed a process to cast a patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica for preoperative repair in a high-fidelity simulator.

RESULTS: Mitral valve and negative mould were printed in systole to capture the pathology when the valve closes. A patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica was casted and mounted in the simulator. All repair techniques could be performed in the simulator to choose the best repair strategy. As the valve was printed in systole, no special testing other than adjusting the coaptation area was required. Subsequently, the patient was operated, mitral valve pathology was validated and repair was successfully done as in the simulation.

CONCLUSIONS: The patient-specific simulation and planning could be applied for surgical training, starting the (minimally invasive) mitral valve repair programme, planning of complex cases and the evaluation of new interventional techniques. The personalized medicine could be a possible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility, patient's safety and effectiveness of a complex surgical procedure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-168
Number of pages6
JournalInteractive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2017


  • Mitral valve repair
  • Simulation
  • Minimally invasive
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Preoperative planning


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