OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify predictors of long-term consequences for activities and participation in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).
METHODS: A multicentre prospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted. The primary outcome measure was activities and participation measured with the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation - CASP and completed by children (N = 156) and caregivers (N = 231) six months post-mTBI. The CASP items were categorized into home, community, school, and environment. Predictors were categorized according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth. Predictors included pre-injury personal- and environmental factors, injury-related factors, symptoms, and resumption of activities in the first two weeks after mTBI. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictive value of these factors.
RESULTS: Results show that predictors differ across settings and perspectives (child or caregiver). Decreased activities and participation in children with mTBI can be predicted by adverse pre-injury behavioral functioning of the child (p < .000 - p = .038), adverse pre-injury family functioning (p = .001), lower parental SES (p = .038), more stress symptoms post-injury (p = .017 - p = .032), more post-concussive symptoms (p = .016 - p = .028) and less resumption of activities (p = .006 - p = .045).
DISCUSSION: Pre-injury factors, more symptoms post-injury and less resumption of activities should be considered when children are screened for unfavorable outcomes. Additional factors may add to the prediction, but injury-related factors do not. It is recommended that future research explores psychosocial factors, such as coping styles, emotion-regulation, personality traits, social support, and other comorbid problems of both children and caregivers.
- Activities and participation
- Mild traumatic brain injury
- POST-CONCUSSIVE SYMPTOMS
- POSTCONCUSSION SYNDROME