Predicting having condoms available among adolescents: The role of personal norm and enjoyment

I.J. Jellema, C. Abraham, H.P. Schaalma, W.A. Gebhardt, P. van Empelen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives Having condoms available has been shown to be an important predictor of condom use. We examined whether or not personal norm and goal enjoyment contribute to predicting having condoms available in the context of cognition specified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Design Prospective survey study, with a baseline and follow-up measurement (at 3months). Methods Data were gathered using an online survey. In total 282 adolescents (mean age=15.6, 74% female adolescents) completed both questionnaires. At baseline, demographics, sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, descriptive norm, personal norm, and enjoyment towards having condoms available were measured. At T2 (3months later) having condoms available was measured. Direct and moderating effects of personal norm and goal enjoyment were examined by means of hierarchical linear regression analyses. Results Regression analyses yielded a direct effect of self-efficacy and personal norm on condom availability. In addition, moderation of the intention-behaviour relation by goal enjoyment added to the variance explained. The final model explained approximately 35% of the variance in condom availability. Conclusions Personal norm and goal enjoyment add to the predictive utility of a TPB model of having condoms available and may be useful intervention targets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-468
JournalBritish Journal of Health Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013


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