This report describes four patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, suffering from posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during the induction period of treatment. A review of the literature on posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in paediatric leukaemia is given. The exact mechanism of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is not clear and seems to be multifactorial. Hypertension is likely to play a major role in the development but could be also secondary. All patients in this case series presented after introduction of the new induction protocol for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Treatment of hypertension is likely to have a favourable role and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is most often reversible. It is important to consider this diagnosis during the induction phase of leukaemia treatment in the presence of neurological symptoms. The incidence of PRES in the induction scheme should be investigated, in order to optimize the ALL treatment.
- Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
- Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy