Polymorphisms in Glyoxalase I Gene Are Not Associated with Glyoxalase I Expression in Whole Blood or Markers of Methylglyoxal Stress: The CODAM Study

K. Maasen, N.M.J. Hanssen, C.J.H. van der Kallen, C.D.A. Stehouwer, M.M.J. van Greevenbroek, C.G. Schalkwijk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate. MGO is a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), and both are associated with development of age-related diseases. Since genetic variation in GLO1 may alter the expression and/or the activity of Glo1, we examined the association of nine SNPs in GLO1 with Glo1 expression and markers of MGO stress (MGO in fasting plasma and after an oral glucose tolerance test, D-lactate in fasting plasma and urine, and MGO-derived AGEs CEL and MG-H1 in fasting plasma and urine). We used data of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM, n = 546, 60 +/- 7 y, 25% type 2 diabetes). Outcomes were compared across genotypes using linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, and glucose metabolism status. We found that SNP4 (rs13199033) was associated with Glo1 expression (AA as reference, standardized beta AT = -0.29, p = 0.02 and TT = -0.39, p = 0.3). Similarly, SNP13 (rs3799703) was associated with Glo1 expression (GG as reference, standardized beta AG = 0.17, p = 0.14 and AA = 0.36, p = 0.005). After correction for multiple testing these associations were not significant. For the other SNPs, we observed no consistent associations over the different genotypes. Thus, polymorphisms of GLO1 were not associated with Glo1 expression or markers of MGO stress, suggesting that these SNPs are not functional, although activity/expression might be altered in other tissues.
Original languageEnglish
Article number219
Number of pages12
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • advanced glycation endproducts
  • codam
  • d-lactate
  • gene expression
  • glyoxalase 1
  • glyoxalase pathway
  • methylglyoxal
  • mrna
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • D-lactate
  • mRNA

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