Plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations after plant sterol and plant stanol consumption: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Sabine Baumgartner*, Rouyanne T. Ras, Elke A. Trautwein, Ronald P. Mensink, Jogchum Plat

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Purpose Plant sterols and stanols interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption, and it has been questioned whether absorption and plasma concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids are also affected. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effects of plant sterol and stanol consumption on plasma fat-soluble vitamin and carotenoid concentrations.

Methods Forty-one randomized controlled trials involving 3306 subjects were included. Weighted absolute and relative changes of non-standardized and total cholesterol (TC)-standardized values (expressed as summary estimates and 95 % CIs) were calculated for three fat-soluble vitamins (alpha-and gamma-tocopherol, retinol and vitamin D) and six carotenoids (beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin) using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using predefined subject and treatment characteristics.

Results Average plant sterol or stanol intake was 2.5 g/d. Relative non-standardized and TC-standardized concentrations of beta-carotene decreased by, respectively, -16.3 % (95 % CI -18.3; -14.3) and -10.1 % (-12.3; -8.0), a-carotene by -14.4 % (-17.5; 11.3) and -7.8 % (-11.3; -4.3), and lycopene by -12.3 % (-14.6; -10.1) and -6.3 % (-8.6; -4.0). Lutein concentrations decreased by -7.4 % (-10.1; -4.8), while TC-standardized concentrations were not changed. For zeaxanthin, these values were -12.9 % (-18.9; -6.8) and -7.7 % (-13.8; -1.7) and for beta-cryptoxanthin -10.6 % (-14.3; -6.9) and -4.8 % (-8.7; -0.9). Non-standardized alpha-tocopherol concentrations decreased by -7.1 % (-8.0; -6.2) and gamma-tocopherol by -6.9 % (-9.8; -3.9), while TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations were not changed. Non-standardized retinol and vitamin D concentrations were not affected. Results were not affected by baseline concentrations, dose, duration and type of plant sterols/stanols, except for significant effects of duration ( 4 weeks) on TC-standardized lutein concentrations (1.0 vs. -5.6 %) and type of plant sterol/stanol on TC-standardized beta-carotene concentrations (-8.9 vs. -14.2 %).

Conclusions Plant sterol and stanol intake lowers TC-standardized hydrocarbon carotenoid concentrations, differently affects TC-standardized oxygenated carotenoid concentrations, but does not affect TC-standardized tocopherol concentrations or absolute retinol and vitamin D concentrations. Observed concentrations remained within normal ranges.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-923
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume56
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

Keywords

  • Plant sterols
  • Plant stanols
  • Cholesterol
  • Hydrocarbon carotenoids
  • Oxygenated carotenoids
  • Fatsoluble vitamins
  • SERUM-CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATIONS
  • MILDLY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC SUBJECTS
  • DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL
  • ESTER-ENRICHED MARGARINES
  • PLACEBO-CONTROLLED-TRIAL
  • PROSTATE-CANCER RISK
  • LDL-CHOLESTEROL
  • ANTIOXIDANT CONCENTRATIONS
  • ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL
  • LIPID PROFILE

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