Pilot Clinical Trial of Time-Restricted Eating in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

Iwona Swiatkiewicz*, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Alina Wozniak, Karolina Szewczyk-Golec, Jaroslaw Nuszkiewicz, Joanna Wroblewska, Pawel Rajewski, Simone J. P. M. Eussen, Kristine Faerch, Emily N. C. Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda, Pam R. Taub

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and erratic eating patterns are associated with circadian rhythm disruption which contributes to an increased cardiometabolic risks. Restricting eating period (time-restricted eating, TRE) can restore robust circadian rhythms and improve cardiometabolic health. We describe a protocol of the Time-Restricted Eating on Metabolic and Neuroendocrine homeostasis, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress (TREMNIOS) pilot clinical trial in Polish adult patients with MetS and eating period of >= 14 h/day. The study aims to test the feasibility of TRE intervention and methodology for evaluating its efficacy for improving metabolic, neuroendocrine, inflammatory, oxidative stress and cardiac biomarkers, and daily rhythms of behavior for such population. Participants will apply 10-h TRE over a 12-week monitored intervention followed by a 12-week self-directed intervention. Changes in eating window, body weight and composition, biomarkers, and rhythms of behavior will be evaluated. Dietary intake, sleep, activity and wellbeing will be monitored with the myCircadianClock application and questionnaires. Adherence to TRE defined as the proportion of days recorded with app during the monitored intervention in which participants satisfied 10-h TRE is the primary outcome. TREMNIOS will also provide an exploratory framework to depict post-TRE changes in cardiometabolic outcomes and behavior rhythms. This protocol extends previous TRE-related protocols by targeting European population with diagnosed MetS and including long-term intervention, validated tools for monitoring dietary intake and adherence, and comprehensive range of biomarkers. TREMNIOS trial will lay the groundwork for a large-scale randomized controlled trial to determine TRE efficacy for improving cardiometabolic health in MetS population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number346
Number of pages18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • time-restricted eating
  • metabolic syndrome
  • eating pattern
  • clinical trial
  • m-health applications
  • cardiometabolic risks
  • health outcomes
  • body weight
  • circadian rhythm
  • dietary assessment methodologies

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