Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels: Effects of Severity and Likelihood of Risk Messages

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pictorial cigarette warning labels often contain text-messages about severity of health risks and less often about the likelihood of health risks. We aimed to examine the influence of severity of risk versus likelihood of risk text-messages on information seeking behavior. METHODS: Study 1: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) between-subjects design (n=260); Study 2: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) x 2 (picture) between-subjects design (n=537). Main outcome measures were information seeking intention and information seeking behavior (accepting a brochure about smoking cessation in Study 1; clicking on a link to a smoking cessation webpage in Study 2). RESULTS: In Study 1, exposure to likelihood text-messages was associated with more information seeking behavior but not with attitudes and intention to quit. In Study 2, exposure to likelihood text-messages was not associated with information seeking behavior, but was associated with higher warning label ratings and with more positive attitudes towards quitting when it was a pictorial cigarette warning label; exposure to severity text-messages was associated with higher warning label ratings and higher risk perceptions. Presence of a picture with smokers' diseased lungs in Study 2 was associated with higher warning label ratings and with higher risk perceptions, but did not influence attitudes and intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: We found preliminary indications that pictorial cigarette labels with likelihood of risk text-messages may be effective in influencing behavior. However, results from our two studies were not consistent. Therefore, future studies should examine this further.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1315-1323
Number of pages9
JournalNicotine & Tobacco Research
Volume18
Issue number5
Early online date7 Nov 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2016

Keywords

  • FEAR APPEALS
  • INFORMATION-SEEKING
  • SELF-EFFICACY
  • HEALTH
  • BELIEFS
  • SMOKERS
  • INTENTIONS
  • PERCEPTION
  • MOTIVATION
  • EXPOSURE

Cite this

@article{d65830a2eab743d0990e505e063a3da1,
title = "Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels: Effects of Severity and Likelihood of Risk Messages",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Pictorial cigarette warning labels often contain text-messages about severity of health risks and less often about the likelihood of health risks. We aimed to examine the influence of severity of risk versus likelihood of risk text-messages on information seeking behavior. METHODS: Study 1: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) between-subjects design (n=260); Study 2: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) x 2 (picture) between-subjects design (n=537). Main outcome measures were information seeking intention and information seeking behavior (accepting a brochure about smoking cessation in Study 1; clicking on a link to a smoking cessation webpage in Study 2). RESULTS: In Study 1, exposure to likelihood text-messages was associated with more information seeking behavior but not with attitudes and intention to quit. In Study 2, exposure to likelihood text-messages was not associated with information seeking behavior, but was associated with higher warning label ratings and with more positive attitudes towards quitting when it was a pictorial cigarette warning label; exposure to severity text-messages was associated with higher warning label ratings and higher risk perceptions. Presence of a picture with smokers' diseased lungs in Study 2 was associated with higher warning label ratings and with higher risk perceptions, but did not influence attitudes and intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: We found preliminary indications that pictorial cigarette labels with likelihood of risk text-messages may be effective in influencing behavior. However, results from our two studies were not consistent. Therefore, future studies should examine this further.",
keywords = "FEAR APPEALS, INFORMATION-SEEKING, SELF-EFFICACY, HEALTH, BELIEFS, SMOKERS, INTENTIONS, PERCEPTION, MOTIVATION, EXPOSURE",
author = "G.E. Nagelhout and E. Janssen and R.A.C. Ruiter and {de Vries}, H.",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1093/ntr/ntv248",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "1315--1323",
journal = "Nicotine & Tobacco Research",
issn = "1462-2203",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
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}

Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels: Effects of Severity and Likelihood of Risk Messages. / Nagelhout, G.E.; Janssen, E.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; de Vries, H.

In: Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol. 18, No. 5, 05.2016, p. 1315-1323.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pictorial Cigarette Warning Labels: Effects of Severity and Likelihood of Risk Messages

AU - Nagelhout, G.E.

AU - Janssen, E.

AU - Ruiter, R.A.C.

AU - de Vries, H.

PY - 2016/5

Y1 - 2016/5

N2 - INTRODUCTION: Pictorial cigarette warning labels often contain text-messages about severity of health risks and less often about the likelihood of health risks. We aimed to examine the influence of severity of risk versus likelihood of risk text-messages on information seeking behavior. METHODS: Study 1: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) between-subjects design (n=260); Study 2: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) x 2 (picture) between-subjects design (n=537). Main outcome measures were information seeking intention and information seeking behavior (accepting a brochure about smoking cessation in Study 1; clicking on a link to a smoking cessation webpage in Study 2). RESULTS: In Study 1, exposure to likelihood text-messages was associated with more information seeking behavior but not with attitudes and intention to quit. In Study 2, exposure to likelihood text-messages was not associated with information seeking behavior, but was associated with higher warning label ratings and with more positive attitudes towards quitting when it was a pictorial cigarette warning label; exposure to severity text-messages was associated with higher warning label ratings and higher risk perceptions. Presence of a picture with smokers' diseased lungs in Study 2 was associated with higher warning label ratings and with higher risk perceptions, but did not influence attitudes and intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: We found preliminary indications that pictorial cigarette labels with likelihood of risk text-messages may be effective in influencing behavior. However, results from our two studies were not consistent. Therefore, future studies should examine this further.

AB - INTRODUCTION: Pictorial cigarette warning labels often contain text-messages about severity of health risks and less often about the likelihood of health risks. We aimed to examine the influence of severity of risk versus likelihood of risk text-messages on information seeking behavior. METHODS: Study 1: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) between-subjects design (n=260); Study 2: An experimental study with a 2 (severity) x 2 (likelihood) x 2 (picture) between-subjects design (n=537). Main outcome measures were information seeking intention and information seeking behavior (accepting a brochure about smoking cessation in Study 1; clicking on a link to a smoking cessation webpage in Study 2). RESULTS: In Study 1, exposure to likelihood text-messages was associated with more information seeking behavior but not with attitudes and intention to quit. In Study 2, exposure to likelihood text-messages was not associated with information seeking behavior, but was associated with higher warning label ratings and with more positive attitudes towards quitting when it was a pictorial cigarette warning label; exposure to severity text-messages was associated with higher warning label ratings and higher risk perceptions. Presence of a picture with smokers' diseased lungs in Study 2 was associated with higher warning label ratings and with higher risk perceptions, but did not influence attitudes and intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: We found preliminary indications that pictorial cigarette labels with likelihood of risk text-messages may be effective in influencing behavior. However, results from our two studies were not consistent. Therefore, future studies should examine this further.

KW - FEAR APPEALS

KW - INFORMATION-SEEKING

KW - SELF-EFFICACY

KW - HEALTH

KW - BELIEFS

KW - SMOKERS

KW - INTENTIONS

KW - PERCEPTION

KW - MOTIVATION

KW - EXPOSURE

U2 - 10.1093/ntr/ntv248

DO - 10.1093/ntr/ntv248

M3 - Article

VL - 18

SP - 1315

EP - 1323

JO - Nicotine & Tobacco Research

JF - Nicotine & Tobacco Research

SN - 1462-2203

IS - 5

ER -