Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention.

K. van Wijck, K. Lenaerts, J. Grootjans, K.A. Wijnands, M. Poeze, L.J.C. van Loon, C.H.C. Dejong, W.A. Buurman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Physical exercise places high demands on the adaptive capacity of the human body. Strenuous physical performance increases the blood supply to active muscles, cardiopulmonary system, and skin to meet the altered demands for oxygen and nutrients. The redistribution of blood flow, necessary for such an increased blood supply to the periphery, significantly reduces blood flow to the gut, leading to hypoperfusion and gastrointestinal (GI) compromise. A compromised GI system can have a negative impact on exercise performance and subsequent post-exercise recovery due to abdominal distress and impairments in the uptake of fluid, electrolytes, and nutrients. In addition, strenuous physical exercise leads to loss of epithelial integrity, which may give rise to increased intestinal permeability with bacterial translocation and inflammation. Ultimately, these effects can deteriorate post-exercise recovery and disrupt exercise training routine. This review provides an overview on the recent advances in our understanding of GI physiology and pathophysiology in relation to strenuous exercise. Various approaches to determine the impact of exercise on the individual athlete's GI tract will be discussed. In addition, we will elaborate on several promising components that could be exploited for preventive interventions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G155-G168
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Volume303
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

Keywords

  • athletes
  • gastrointestinal compromise
  • strenuous exercise
  • MODERATE-INTENSITY EXERCISE
  • INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE
  • TIME-TRIAL PERFORMANCE
  • MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN
  • LONG-DISTANCE RUNNERS
  • MESENTERIC BLOOD-FLOW
  • NITRIC-OXIDE
  • GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS
  • ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION
  • PROLONGED EXERCISE

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