Physiological basis for longitudinal motion of the arterial wall

Chloe E Athaide, Bart Spronck, Jason S Au*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

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Abstract

As opposed to arterial distension in the radial plane, longitudinal wall motion (LWM) is a multiphasic and bidirectional displacement of the arterial wall in the anterograde (i.e., in the direction of blood flow) and retrograde (i.e., opposing direction of blood flow) directions. While initially disregarded as imaging artifact, LWM has been consistently reported in ultrasound investigations in the last decade and is reproducible beat-to-beat, albeit with large inter-individual variability across healthy and diseased populations. Emerging literature has sought to examine the mechanistic control of LWM to explain the shape and variability of the motion pattern but lacks considerations for key foundational vascular principles at the level of the arterial wall ultrastructure. The purpose of this review is to summarize the potential factors that underpin the causes and control of arterial LWM, spanning considerations from the arterial extracellular matrix to systems-level integrative theories. First, an overview of LWM and relevant aspects wall composition will be discussed, including major features of the multiphasic pattern, arterial wall extracellular components, tunica fiber orientations, and arterial longitudinal pre-stretch. Second, current theories on the systems-level physiological mechanisms driving LWM will be discussed in the context of available evidence including experimental human research, porcine studies, and mathematical models. Throughout, we discuss implications of these observations with suggestions for future priority research areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H689-H701
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume322
Issue number5
Early online date25 Feb 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • AGE-RELATED-CHANGES
  • BLOOD-PRESSURE
  • COLLAGEN
  • COMMON CAROTID-ARTERY
  • DISPLACEMENT
  • ELASTIN
  • INTRAMURAL SHEAR STRAIN
  • MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES
  • MOVEMENTS
  • STRESS
  • arterial stiffness
  • blood pressure
  • longitudinal prestretch
  • tunica media
  • ventricular vascular coupling

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