PHQ-9, CES-D, health insurance data-who is identified with depression? A Population-based study in persons with diabetes

U. Linnenkamp*, V. Gontscharuk, K. Ogurtsova, M. Brune, N. Chernyak, T. Kvitkina, W. Arend, I. Schmitz-Losem, J. Kruse, N. Hermanns, B. Kulzer, S.M.A.A. Evers, M. Hiligsmann, B. Hoffmann, A. Icks, S. Andrich

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


AimsSeveral instruments are used to identify depression among patients with diabetes and have been compared for their test criteria, but, not for the overlaps and differences, for example, in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the individuals identified with different instruments.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional survey among a random sample of a statutory health insurance (SHI) (n = 1,579) with diabetes and linked it with longitudinal SHI data. Depression symptoms were identified using either the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale or the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and a depressive disorder was identified with a diagnosis in SHI data, resulting in 8 possible groups. Groups were compared using a multinomial logistic model.ResultsIn total 33 center dot 0% of our analysis sample were identified with depression by at least one method. 5 center dot 0% were identified with depression by all methods. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that identification through SHI data only compared to the group with no depression was associated with gender (women). Identification through at least SHI data was associated with taking antidepressants and previous depression. Health related quality of life, especially the mental summary score was associated with depression but not when identified through SHI data only.ConclusionThe methods overlapped less than expected. We did not find a clear pattern between methods used and characteristics of individuals identified. However, we found first indications that the choice of method is related to specific underlying characteristics in the identified population. These findings need to be confirmed by further studies with larger study samples.
Original languageEnglish
Article number54
Number of pages13
JournalDiabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2023


  • Depressive disorder diagnosis
  • Depressive disorder epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 psychology
  • Diabetes complications
  • RISK
  • CARE


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