Photoinitiation Mechanisms of Novel Phenothiazine-Based Oxime and Oxime Esters Acting as Visible Light Sensitive Type I and Multicomponent Photoinitiators

A. Noon, F. Hammoud, B. Graff, T. Hamieh, J. Toufaily, F. Morlet-Savary, M. Schmitt, T.T. Bui, A. Rico, F. Goubard, S. Peralta, F. Dumur*, J. Lalevee*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this work, three new photoinitiators, based on the phenothiazine scaffold as a chromophore and potentially bearing the oxime ester functionality as an initiating group are designed and synthesized for the free radical polymerization of acrylates, the cationic polymerization of epoxides, and the formation of interpenetrated polymer networks upon irradiation with a light emitting diode emitting at 405 nm. These phenothiazine-based oxime and oxime esters revealed impressive photoinitiation ability manifested by excellent polymerization rates and high final reactive function conversions. Significantly, they can be used as both; one-component (Type I) and two-component photoinitiating systems. Photoinitiation mechanisms through which reactive species are produced are investigated by means of different complementary techniques including real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, fluorescence (steady state and time resolved), cyclic voltammetry, and molecular modeling calculations. Thermal initiation behavior of the different oxime esters is also studied by using differential scanning calorimetry, highlighting their dual thermal/photochemical initiation ability. Finally, 3D printed objects are successfully fabricated by conducting both direct laser writing and 3D printing experiments.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2300205
Number of pages14
JournalAdvanced Materials Technologies
Issue number16
Early online date1 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 25 Aug 2023


  • photoinitiators
  • visible range
  • LEDs
  • oxime esters
  • thermal initiators
  • 3D printing
  • UV


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