Pharmacy-led interventions to improve medication adherence among adults with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background: Control of blood glucose and a reduced risk of complications are important treatment goals in diabetes. Medication non-adherence can influence the outcome of diabetes. Involvement of a pharmacist in diabetes care might help patients to achieve better treatment outcomes. Existing literature reviews have focused on a limited number of interventions and outcome measures, and have involved different healthcare professionals. None of the previous reviews have used a standardized effect size to compare the effects of different pharmacist-led interventions and different outcome measures.

Objective: To review pharmacist-led interventions to improve medication adherence in patients with diabetes and to assess the effectiveness of these interventions on medication adherence.

Methods: Six databases were systematically searched between March and September 2017 for randomized controlled trials: PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, CINAHL, JSTOR, and Web of Science. The outcome measures used were: medication adherence, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial blood glucose (PPG), or random blood glucose (RBG). Cohen's d, a standardized effect size, enabled a comparison of studies with different outcome measures. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the quality of the studies.

Results: Fifty-nine studies were included in this review. Pharmacist-led interventions enhanced outcomes in patients with diabetes (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.68; 95% CI -0.79, -0.58; p <0.001). Subgroup analysis by intervention strategy, the type of intervention and outcome measures produced similar results. Further analysis showed that education, printed/digital material, training/group discussion, were more effective than other interventions.

Conclusion: This finding supports the role of the pharmacist in diabetes care to enhance medication adherence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1057-1067
Number of pages11
JournalResearch in Social & Administrative Pharmacy
Volume15
Issue number9
Early online date2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Keywords

  • Diabetes
  • Medication adherence
  • Meta-analysis
  • Pharmacist
  • Systematic review
  • GLYCEMIC CONTROL
  • MELLITUS PATIENTS
  • RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
  • PHARMACEUTICAL CARE PROGRAM
  • QUALITY-OF-LIFE
  • PATIENT ADHERENCE
  • TYPE-2
  • CARDIOVASCULAR RISK
  • CLINICAL-OUTCOMES
  • INSULIN THERAPY

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