This chapter summarises recent developments on personalised medicine in psychiatry with a focus on ADHD and depression and their associated biomarkers and phenotypes. Several neurophysiological subtypes in ADHD and depression and their relation to treatment outcome are reviewed. The first important subgroup consists of the ‘impaired vigilance’ subgroup with oftenreported excess frontal theta or alpha activity. This EEG subtype explains ADHD symptoms well based on the EEG Vigilance model, and these ADHD patients responds well to stimulant medication. In depression this subtype might be unresponsive to antidepressant treatments, and some studies suggest these depressive patients might respond better to stimulant medication. Further research should investigate whether sleep problems underlie this impaired vigilance subgroup, thereby perhaps providing a route to more specific treatments for this subgroup. Finally, a slow individual alpha peak frequency is an endophenotype associated with treatment resistance in ADHD and depression. Future studies should incorporate this endophenotype in clinical trials to investigate further the efficacy of new treatments in this substantial subgroup of patients.
|Title of host publication||Electrophysiology and Psychophysiology in Psychiatry and Psychopharmacology|
|Number of pages||26|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2014|
|Series||Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences|
- Personalised medicine