In this article we explore the ethical issues raised by permitting patients to pay for participation (P4) in clinical trials, and discuss whether there are any categorical objections to this practice. We address key considerations concerning payment for participation in trials, including patient autonomy, risk/benefit and justice, taking account of two previous critiques of the ethics of P4. We conclude that such trials could be ethical under certain strict conditions, but only if other potential sources of funding have first been explored or are unavailable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-227
Number of pages9
JournalMedicine Health Care and Philosophy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017


  • Clinical trials
  • Research ethics
  • Participatory research
  • Exploitation
  • Patient participation
  • Crowdfunding


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