Peritoneal selerosis (PS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The annual incidence increases with the duration of PD treatment and the mortality rate is high. Aetiology of PS is probably multifactorial and in most cases not exactly known. One import factor of PS is the bioincompatibility of the glucose-based PD solutions. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical suspicion and radiological findings. Early detection is important to institute preventive strategies and development of therapeutic strategies has reduced mortality.