Perioperative management of antithrombotic treatment during implantation or revision of cardiac implantable electronic devices: the European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI)

Jean-Claude Deharo*, Elena Sciaraffia, Christophe Leclercq, Walid Amara, Michael Doering, Maria G. Bongiorni, Jian Chen, Nicolaus Dagres, Heidi Estner, Torben B. Larsen, Jens B. Johansen, Tatjana S. Potpara, Alessandro Proclemer, Laurent Pison, Caroline Brunet, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The European Snapshot Survey on Procedural Routines for Electronic Device Implantation (ESS-PREDI) was a prospective European survey of consecutive adults who had undergone implantation/surgical revision of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) on chronic antithrombotic therapy (enrolment March-June 2015). The aim of the survey was to investigate perioperative treatment with oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets in CIED implantation or surgical revision and to determine the incidence of complications, including clinically significant pocket haematomas. Information on antithrombotic therapy before and after surgery and bleeding and thromboembolic complications occurring after the intervention was collected at first follow-up. The study population comprised 723 patients (66.7% men, 76.9% aged a parts per thousand yen66 years). Antithrombotic treatment was continued during surgery in 489 (67.6%) patients; 6 (0.8%) had their treatment definitively stopped; 46 (6.4%) were switched to another antithrombotic therapy. Heparin bridging was used in 55 out of 154 (35.8%) patients when interrupting vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) treatment was interrupted in 88.7% of patients, with heparin bridging in 25.6%, but accounted for only 25.3% of the oral anticoagulants used. A total of 108 complications were observed in 98 patients. No intracranial haemorrhage or embolic events were observed. Chronic NOAC treatment before surgery was associated with lower rates of minor pocket haematoma (1.4%; P= 0.042) vs. dual antiplatelet therapy (13.0%), VKA (11.4%), VKA + antiplatelet (9.2%), or NOAC + antiplatelet (7.7%). Similar results were observed for bleeding complications (P= 0.028). Perioperative management of patients undergoing CIED implantation/surgical revision while on chronic antithrombotic therapy varies, with evidence of a disparity between guideline recommendations and practice patterns in Europe. Haemorrhagic complications were significantly less frequent in patients treated with NOACs. Despite this, the incidence of severe pocket haematomas was low.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)778-784
Number of pages7
JournalEP Europace
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


  • Cardiac implantable electronic device
  • Antithrombotic therapy
  • Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants
  • Warfarin
  • Antiplatelet
  • Bleeding
  • Pocket haematoma
  • EHRA survey

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