Paving the road for early breast cancer presentation: investigating the psychosocial determinants of breast self-examination in Surabaya, Indonesia

Triana Kesuma Dewi

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisInternal

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Breast cancer remains a public health concern in Indonesia, due to its high incidence, late presentation, and high mortality rate. Therefore, early diagnosis followed by timely treatment is regarded as a cornerstone for breast cancer control. Breast self-examination (BSE) practice followed by a prompt medical professional examination in the case of detected abnormalities may serve as a viable screening, especially in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) like Indonesia. This PhD research investigated psychosocial determinants of BSE among women in Indonesia, aimed to inform the development of tailored interventions. The results indicated that breast education should focus on promoting breast cancer literacy and BSE information by focusing on strategies to stimulate understanding of BSE benefits and positive attitudes towards BSE. The education should also encompass methods to improve women’s self-efficacy and skill to perform BSE. Moreover, relevant strategies to overcome the barriers to perform BSE should also be incorporated. Finally, the involvement of women’s social networks in such intervention would be beneficial.
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • Maastricht University
  • Ruiter, Rob, Supervisor
  • Massar, Karlijn, Co-Supervisor
  • Ardi, R., Co-Supervisor, External person
Award date17 Nov 2021
Place of PublicationMaastricht
Print ISBNs9789083189314
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • breast cancer
  • breast self-examination
  • early detection
  • social determinants of health

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