Patient-reported Outcome Measures: The FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module: The Dutch Translation and Linguistic Validation

Maarten J. Ottenhof*, Aimee J. P. M. Lardinois, Philip Brouwer, Erica H. Lee, Dionne S. Deibel, Rene R. W. J. van der Hulst, Andrea Pusic, Chris Sidey-Gibbons, Maarten M. Hoogbergen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Patient-reported outcome measures are becoming a standard component in the evaluation of surgical treatments. In 2010, the FACE-Q skin cancer module was developed: an English psychometric validated questionnaire that measures both patient quality of life and satisfaction with the surgical experience. The questionnaire consists of 11 subscales with a total of 96 questions. An officially translated version in Dutch is needed for accepted use in the Netherlands. Methods: We translated the FACE-Q skin cancer module from English into Dutch in accordance with to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research and World Health Organization guidelines. The translation occurs in three stages. First, a forward translation is performed by two independent professional translators, where discrepancies are solved by a third translator, a subject area expert. Secondly, a backward translation is performed and is compared with the original. Any discrepancies are solved by an expert panel. Version two is then pretested (cognitive debriefing) by 30 patients who have had a resection (Mohs surgery) of non-melanoma skin cancer in the face followed by reconstruction. The results of the pretesting exercise are evaluated and a final version of the translation was produced by the expert panel. Results: In the first step, a conceptually equivalent Dutch translation of the FACE-Q was translated. In the second phase, the comparison between the forward and backward translation led to multiple retranslations. In step three, 48 annotations were evaluated by the expert panel, which led to 26 minor changes in items or instructions. Conclusion: We created a conceptually and linguistically similar translation of the FACE-Q Skin Cancer Module through a thorough translation and linguistic validation process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2325
Pages (from-to)1-4
Number of pages4
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery-Global open
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019



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