BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose. We tested this hypothesis by comparing postprandial responses to fats with varying proportions of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a crossover-designed randomized controlled trial in healthy men (n=25) and women (n=25), we compared four meals on postprandial changes in glucose (primary outcome), insulin, C-peptide, glucose, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and polypeptide YY (PYY) concentrations. The meals provided 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g test fat, supplied as high oleic sunflower (HOS) oil (control), palm olein (PO), interesterified palm olein (IPO) and lard containing 0.6, 9.2, 39.1 and 70.5 mol% palmitic acid at sn-2, respectively.
RESULTS: No differences in plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response between meals were found. GIP release was lower (P <0.001) for IPO and lard compared with HOS and PO meals; the maximal increments (geometric mean and 95% confidence interval) for HOS, PO, IPO and lard were 515 (468, 569), 492 (448, 540), 398 (350, 452) and 395 (364, 429) ng/l, respectively. There was a trend for the postprandial increase in PYY to be lower in women on the IPO and lard meals than those on the HOS and PO meals.
CONCLUSIONS: Dietary TAGs with an increased proportion of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position do not have acute adverse effects on the insulin and glucose response to meals in healthy men and women, but they decrease GIP release.
- DIETARY FATS