Background: Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is an enzyme that converts arginine into citrulline. PAD4 is expressed in neutrophils that, when activated, can drive the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Uncontrolled activation of PAD4 and subsequent citrullination of proteins is increasingly recognized as a driver of (auto)immune diseases. Currently, our understanding of PAD4 structure-function relationships and activity control in vivo is incomplete.
Aims: To provide the current state-of-the-art on PAD4 structure-activity relationships and involvement of PAD4 in autoimmune disorders as well as in thrombo-inflammatory disease.
Materials & Methods: Literature review and molecular modelling
Results: In this review, we used molecular modelling to generate a three-dimensional structure of the complete PAD4 molecule. Using our model, we discuss the catalytic conversion of the arginine substrate to citrulline. Besides mechanistic insight into PAD4 function, we give an overview of biological functions of PAD4 and mechanisms that influence its activation. In addition, we discuss the crucial role of PAD4-mediated citrullination of histones during the formation of NETs. Subsequently, we focus on the role of PAD4-mediated NET formation and its role in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis and (immune-)thrombosis. Finally, we summarize current efforts to design different classes of PAD4 inhibitors that are being developed for improved treatment of autoimmune disorders as well as thrombo-inflammatory disease.
Discussion: Advances in PAD4 structure-function are still necessary to gain a complete insight in mechanisms that control PAD4 activity in vivo. The involvement of PAD4 in several diseases signifies the need for a PAD4 inhibitor. Although progress has been made to produce an isotype specific and potent PAD4 inhibitor, currently no PAD4 inhibitor is ready for clinical use.
Conclusion: More research into PAD4 structure and function and into the regulation of its activity is required for the development of PAD4 specific inhibitors that may prove vital to combat and prevent autoimmune disorders and (thrombo)inflammatory disease.
- immune disease
- neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
- PAD4 inhibitors
- protein arginine deiminase
- rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
- PROMOTE THROMBIN GENERATION
- EXTRACELLULAR DNA TRAPS
- DEIMINASE TYPE-4 PAD4
- CHROMATIN DECONDENSATION
- CITRULLINATED PROTEINS
- HISTONE DEIMINATION
- STRUCTURAL BASIS
- INNATE IMMUNITY