Outcomes of Care Among Patients With Gout in Europe: A Cross-sectional Survey

Ritch Te Kampe*, Tim L Jansen, Caroline van Durme, Matthijs Janssen, Gudula Petersen, Annelies Boonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To assess health- and patient-centered outcomes in gout across Europe, and explore patient-, care-, and country-level characteristics associated with these outcomes.

METHODS: Patients with self-reported physician-diagnosed gout from 14 European countries completed an online survey. Multivariable mixed-effect logistic and linear regressions were computed for health outcomes (gout flare recurrence) and patient-centered outcomes (patient satisfaction with current medication, and unaddressed goals), accounting for clustering within countries. The role of patient-, care-, and country-level factors was explored.

RESULTS: Participants included 1029 patients, predominantly diagnosed by a general practitioner (GP). One or more gout flares were reported by 70% of patients and ≥ 3 flares by 32%. Gout patients reported 1.1 ± 1.2 unaddressed goals, and 80% were satisfied with current medication. Patients with ≥ 3 and ≥ 1 flares were less likely to be treated with urate-lowering therapy (ULT) (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.70 and OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.28-0.53, respectively), but more likely to have regular physician visits (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.79-3.22 and OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.30-2.41). Three or more gout flares were also associated with lower satisfaction (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28-0.56) and more unaddressed goals (β 0.36, 95% CI 0.19-0.53). Notwithstanding, the predicted probability of being satisfied was still between 57% and 75% among patients with ≥ 3 flares but who were not receiving ULT. Finally, patients from wealthier and Northern European countries more frequently had ≥ 3 gout flares.

CONCLUSION: Across Europe, many patients with gout remain untreated despite frequent reported flares. Remarkably, a substantial proportion of them were still satisfied with gout management. A better understanding of patients' satisfaction and its role in physicians' gout management decisions is warranted to improve quality of care and gout outcomes across Europe.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)312-319
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Rheumatology
Issue number3
Early online date15 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • gout
  • healthcare surveys
  • multilevel analysis
  • patient-reported outcome measures
  • quality of healthcare


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